 Középiskolai Matematikai és Fizikai Lapok
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 Már regisztráltál? Új vendég vagy? # Angol nyelvű szám, 2002. december

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## Solutions of advanced problems A

A. 269. A circular hole is to be completely covered with two square boards. The sides of the squares are metre. In what interval may the diameter of the hole vary? Figure 1

It is easy to see that a hole of radius $\displaystyle 2-\sqrt2$ (and all smaller holes) can be covered by two unit squares, see Figure 1.

We will prove that if a unit square covers at least half of the perimeter of a circle of radius r, then $\displaystyle r\le2-\sqrt2$. This implies that the diameter of the hole cannot exceed

$\displaystyle 4-2\sqrt2\approx1.17~\rm metre.$

Let K be a circle of radius r, and N be a unit square, which covers at least the half of K. If r$\displaystyle \ge$1/2, then N can be translated such that each side of N or its extension has at least one common point with K and the covered part of the curve is increasing, see Figure 2. Figure 2

So, it can be assumed that r>1/2 and (the extension of) each side of N has a common point with K.

First, assume that a vertex of N is inside K. Let the vertices of N be A, B, C, D and suppose that A is inside K. Denote the intersection of K and the half-lines AB and AD by P and Q, respectively. (Figure 3.)

Because PAQ$\displaystyle \angle$=90o, the centre of K and vertex A are on the same side of line PQ. This implies that the uncovered arc PQ is longer than the half of K. This is a contradiction, thus this case is impossible.

We are left to deal with the case when there are no vertices of N inside K and each side or its extension has a common point with K. It is easy to check that these common points cannot be on the extension of the sides of N; they must lie on the perimeter of N.  Figure 3 Figure 4

Denote by $\displaystyle \alpha$, $\displaystyle \beta$, $\displaystyle \gamma$ and $\displaystyle \delta$ the angles drawn on Figure 4.

The total of the uncovered arcs is at most the half of K, so $\displaystyle \alpha$+$\displaystyle \beta$+$\displaystyle \gamma$+$\displaystyle \delta$ 90o. By symmetry, it can be assumed that +  45o.

As can be read from the Figure, r(cos +cos )=r(cos +cos )=1. The concavity of the cosine function yields and hence .

Thus, the radius of the hole can be at most ; its diameter can be at most metre.